Tiger's Powerful Migration Assistant
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Let the Migration Begin: the Selection Process
After all these considerations, we can now safely proceed with the migration procedure. Note that the assistant will ask you to authenticate, even if you just want to transfer a user account, as it will need to perform administrative tasks so that your new installation recognizes the new account as a valid one.
Once authenticated, you will be asked whether you wish to transfer information from another drive in your Mac or from another Mac booted in FireWire Target Disk Mode. Picking the first option will open up a few panes that will guide you through the process of connecting this other Mac to your new one and starting it up properly. Picking "Another volume on this Mac" will simply display a list of the various Mac OS X drives installed on your computer.
The assistant will then display a list of the accounts you can transfer. Note that, next to every one, you will see how much space this transfer requires, as well as some basic information regarding the account--a user picture and, if appropriate, a line of information about its transferability status. This is quite straightforward although you should avoid to overwrite accounts you have already created on your Mac with an account that uses the same name in the Migration Assistant. Indeed, you might end up involuntarily archiving your existing account and replacing it by the old one--no data will be lost but it can be quite a surprising effect before one understands what happened.
Once your accounts are selected, now comes the trickier part: selecting which applications, files, and folders you wish to migrate. The voice of convenience would tell you to select everything and the voice of reason nothing, so the balance is up to you. As a general rule, Migration Assistant will perform version checks and tries, as much as possible to guide you through the process of transferring preferences--by insisting that you migrate /Library if you choose to migrate your applications, for example. Transferring the files and folders will mostly be needed if you use the root level of your hard drive--or any files/folders that already exist there--to share files between users of the computer. This is especially important to remember if your workflow relies on features such as faxing that involve putting files there.
The next step is more system-oriented and will ask you about time zones, network settings, and sharing options. Transferring time settings is definitely recommended as it will make for a smoother upgrade and will ensure that your logs are consistent--although one would hope that the right time zone was already detected by Setup Assistant when you first started your Mac, so you'll probably not even need to select that option. Transferring network and Sharing settings can also speed the setup process up--especially if your ISP prides themselves in giving out the most atrocious mandatory login names and passwords or if you need to join VPNs that all have a separate configuration that you need to type manually. Just keep in mind when migrating from an older system that the Tiger sharing features have evolved and are now refined, so migrating them does not mean you should not visit the Sharing preferences pane in order to ensure that all the fine details are properly set up--you do turn that firewall on, do you?
Clicking on the "Migrate" button will then cause the Migration Assistant to run a number of checks including making sure that you will not accidentally overwrite any existing account, in which case it will prompt you for instructions. A cool feature of the Tiger Migration Assistant is that you can rename accounts on-the-fly if, for some reason, you need to import a user whose name already appears on the new configuration.
Once any conflicts solved, the Assistant will proceed to transfer files and folders step-by-step keeping you updated on the status of the process. Note that now may be a good time to lock your screen and grab a cup of soy milk, as neither the Finder nor the assistant enjoy having to fight with you over the ownership of files or folders they are working on--you might experience punctual but real slowdowns or Finder windows may seem empty when you open them as the assistant is transferring a large number of files to them--purely cosmetic but counterproductive never the less and you need to rehydrate anyway!
One feature that is missing from the Assistant is a log window, like the one that exists for Installer and that keeps you informed, step-by-step of what gets done, copied and installed from within the application.
Once the transfer has completed, Migration Assistant will display a succinct summary of what happened, along with a shiny "Done" button that will, in one swell click, close the window and quit the application. In most cases, you will simply be informed that the transfer was successful. Should it not be the case, the apparent lack of a log might be an issue--more on that later.
Mac OS X has been designed from the ground up so that installing applications is as easy as dropping an icon onto an Applications folder--the Applications folder located at the root of your hard drive or the little known ones located in each user's individual home. From there, applications maintain a cleverly organized hierarchy of .plist files, containing their preferences, store caches in a finite, predictably placed, number of "Caches" folders and, if at all necessary, stick a couple files in the "Application Support" directory. This makes it all easy to transfer applications from computer to computer, from user to user and to put all the files back in place without needing to worry too much.
This was without counting on some developers that decided that this structure wasn't good enough and started creating folders where they shouldn't have--Microsoft Office User Data anyone?--or breaking the user hierarchy and precedence system. Worse, some larger companies invested in some sloppy DRM software that relies on a complex structure of files and folders scattered in invisible locations on your system. Luckily, these cases are relatively uncommon but they do exist. These applications, of course, cannot be transferred with the same degree of confidence and, for the most protected ones, are guaranteed to fail.
This is why Migration Assistant, once its job completed, will attempt to give you a list of the applications it could not transfer, so that you can start re-installing them properly. While this is by no means fool-proof, it's already an excellent start and should allow you to quickly grab the appropriate CDs.
As a general rule, transferring the shared files and folders should transfer a good portion of any system-wide application-specific files. It's up to you to decide whether that's a good thing--will this allow you to get your settings back and start working immediately or will this cause some funky DRM software to go berserk on you and call the legal department of some software manufacturer? (Hint: it is usually the first case but professional users relying on some high-end editing applications might want to exercise caution)
The Magic of Serial Numbers
Most applications, when they quiz you for a serial number, will rely on some embedded engine to decide whether that is or not a valid serial number and grant you access based on that calculation, usually along with displaying a nice thank you dialog. Some others, though, rely on what the developers think are permanent, computer-specific indicators.
While relying on the MAC address of a machine, its hard drive's serial number or some other hardware-based indicator is usually relatively transparent to the user, keep in mind that some applications rely on software markings that your upgrade might well change--unfortunately popular examples are your time zone (what if you move?), the name of your home folder (what if you change your name?), a checksum of some invisible UNIX directories (what if I go Fink-happy?). In that case, you might need to call the developers and explain your situation so be sure to factor that time into your migration process.
Should you use any applications that rely on others, now would be time to look into these dependencies too. For example, Tiger now ships with the awesome QuickTime 7, that brings us drool-worthy new encoding features, along with a slick new interface. Unfortunately, it also brings us a new activation number for the Pro version, that you might need to obtain from the Apple Store before installing some of your other applications. The same applies to other software, like Photoshop plugins, which will obviously need Photoshop to be up and running to do their work.
Once the migration has completed, you should be able to use your Mac without having to worry too much about setup and configuration--after all, what we have outlined above is more of a worst-case scenario. However, it's important to keep in mind that you might run into some glitches in the unlikely event that Setup Assistant migrated an old component that it shouldn't have transfered or damaged cache files that will cause an application to misbehave.
Luckily, this is all easy to fix. You might want to try following these steps in order to get back on track:
Repair permissions on your boot drive by using the "Disk Utility" located in your "Utilities" folder. This will ensure that all your applications are installed as they should be and will diminish the chances that you will run into the "Access denied" kind of errors that can be easily bothersome. So far, Migration Assistant always did a perfect job permissions-wise for me but, as the saying goes, it cannot hurt...
Run Software Update one last time. In the unlikely event that an optional download (like a Java installer) was reverted to an older state, it might confuse Tiger applications that rely on it. Using Software Update will help ensure that everything is up-to-date. These cases are uncommon, though, given that Migration Assistant does perform some integrity and version checks. A word of caution: deleting the "Receipts" (installer packages) located in (drum roll) /Library/Receipts is unlikely to be of a real help--it can in certain cases trick Software Update into re-applying an installer but is not guaranteed--and is guaranteed to prevent Disk Utility from doing permissions repair properly as it relies on these files. When in doubt, download installers from the Apple Support Downloads site.
Get rid of cache files. Deleting (or moving away in a first time) your various Library/Caches folders can help get rid of potentially unwanted files that might cause applications to misbehave. Should you decide to parse through the "Application Support" directories, keep in mind that these can contain some irreplaceable data like your Address Book database--feel free to peek inside and delete appropriate subdirectories but, unless you have some of that Rogaine left, do not delete the whole directories!
Use the Console, Luke!
While the Migration Assistant does not have a log window and can sometimes be succinct in letting you know what is happening, Console can be of a great help. This utility, located in your "Utilities" folder allows you, as you probably know, to look at your various Mac OS X logs easily. Both the System and Console logs should provide you with valuable information.
For easier viewing, you can enter "Migrat" (Yep, "Migrat") in the filter field, which will catch both references to the "Migration Assistant" and "MigrateTool", the executable located deep down inside the Migration Assistant bundle from which all magic originates. Of course, keep in mind that the Console can be quite verbose and that what appears to be an error message can sometimes be innocuous.
Now comes the meaty part! A very detailed log (get the spectacles and a box of candy) called SystemMigration.log can be found in /Library/Log and, of course, read through Console as well--you will find it listed in the "Logs" list on the left hand side. While very detailed, this log will allow you to know exactly what was transferred, what was skipped, what the UIDs of the new accounts are and just about everything you might need to know. Studying this log will without doubt be of use to system administrators who wish to learn more about how the system works and treats their default configuration before recommending it to their users.
By the way, should you have written any shell scripts that rely on user ID numbers (UIDs), you may want to ensure that your script will work with the new account as Migration Assistant cannot guarantee that accounts will have the same ID on your new system and on the old--as the ID might already be occupied by another account.
Old Mac, Uh?
When Migration Assistant finds applications to migrate to your new Mac, it will try to transfer them in as transparent a way as possible. An application called Cute Tarsier.app will be migrated as the exact Cute Tarsier.app, which will avoid confusing scripts or processes that might expect to find them.
However, should the Migration Assistant transfer the same application twice (this can happen when you transfer applications multiple times, especially when the applications are contained inside folders, which seems to slightly confuse the migration tool), the second copy will be labeled "From old Mac" (no matter where it actually comes from) and following copies will also be numbered "From old Mac 1,2,3...".
Transferring System Settings
Thanks to the modular .plist architecture that powers Mac OS X, transferring system settings is as easy as transferring the right .plist files for Migration Assistant. Should you have already started to set Tiger up, though, you will want to exercise caution as the transfer can overwrite your existing settings--for example, even though your Panther firewall settings will be transfered, any UDP blocking or logging options you might have on will be lost. These are minor issues, though, as the assistant is likely to be used before you start really setting your Mac up. Security conscious users will definitely want to keep that in mind, though!
Also, be careful when migrating from radically different Macs. For example, your laptop may be set up to display a battery indicator in the menu bar and its Energy Saver preferences pane will allow you to set up sleep delays for both the battery and the adapter. Of course, these are all nonsense to your shiny new desktop Mac. During the transfer process, though, the preferences file that says "display a battery indicator here" might be transfered, causing a strange crossed icon to be displayed--your Mac is basically telling you "I can display it if you want but, dude, it makes no sense whatsoever". These glitches are purely cosmetic as Mac OS X is smart enough to ignore any preferences or applications that do not apply to your hardware--just don't be surprised if you notice a few harmless oddities like these.
Network settings are trickier as your new Mac (or Tiger) might allow you to interact with other devices in more ways than Panther or your old machine did. This is why you will want to have a look at your Network Preferences pane, dismiss any "Hey, this is new!" sheets that appear when your Mac wants to share its joy to have discovered a new port and, if applicable, to set up these new services--or disable them for additional security, battery savings and speed.
The Fun Never Stops
Looking into the Setup Assistant's bundle reveals a "migration tool" that can easily be called from command line and displays the cutest little message ("Please don't run me") when launched from Terminal from a non-root user account. As this tool has not been designed to be used from Terminal, it will expect parameters to be passed when launched and will not make efforts to help you find them. Never the less, one rarely encounters such polite applications!
While running the Migration Assistant from the command line is certainly doable, thanks to a mixture of shell scripting, GUI apple scripting, and a sprinkle of Mac magic, system administrators looking to "push" an upgrade onto multiple Macs will more likely benefit from using different technologies such as NetBoot or NetInstall, which provide them with a truly scalable, push-button system. While it is a versatile, powerful application, Migration Assistant has been developed for individual users above all.
Migration Assistant is a small utility that doesn't look like much when launched. It is, however, technically brilliant and will solve many of the headaches traditionally associated with migrating from one computer or operating system to another. By following a few simple rules and applying common sense to the process, you will be able to get back to work (or play) in a matter of minutes, with the assurance that, far, far away, in an office in Cupertino, someone made sure your installation is in the best possible shape.
FJ de Kermadec is an author, stylist and entrepreneur in Paris, France.
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