Basics of Offscreen Bufferingby Michael J. Norton
Welcome to the second installment of the Elementary Computer Graphics lessons -- where elementary means elementary school age developers and up. If you haven't read Elementary Computer Graphics: Drawing with Pixels, I encourage you to do so. Basic concepts were introduced in those lessons that will be built upon here. Also, if you are unfamiliar with the Tcl scripting language, an introductory tutorial was provided there.
We last left off with a game console we had programmed using the Wish shell and the Tcl scripting language. The game console code created a window, 640 pixels wide by 480 pixels tall. We also learned how to draw pixels to our game window in the last lesson. It was a place to start for you up and coming game developers. In this set of lessons, you're going to learn how load an art file into your video game, just as you see on your Game Boy Advance SP games.
I'm also going to cover how a computer stores a file and about a file system. Armed with this knowledge, you'll put it to use with your Tcl skills and load art into the game console. Then I'll tie all this together and show offscreen buffering concepts.
Lesson 1: The Computer File System
So what is a file system and what is it used for? Every computer must store information, even when it is turned off. For instance, when you turn on your Game Boy Advance, you must insert a game cartridge with the game you want to play. The game cartridge contains the game program to load into your Game Boy, as well as game sprites (animation cells), art, music, and sound effects. Since you can insert different game cartridges into the Game Boy, the cartridge is called removable media.
On the other hand, your computer that you are working on has a hard drive, which you don't swap out with different hard drives before you boot the computer. This is called fixed media. The hard drive contains special programs, called an operating system, to boot your computer; a file system, used by the operating system to retrieve programs; and files from your hard drive.
Both your Game Boy and computer use an operating system and a file system. The operating system on your Game Boy is stored on a chip called a ROM, for Read Only Memory. Interestingly, we have different styles of computers with different kinds of storage media. This is where the computer file system comes into play. The file system manages the files on your computer, whether it is a Game Boy or your Macintosh or your PC.
So what is a file, then? A file is a collection of information that is stored on the media. The media is your hard drive, CD-ROM, DVD player, USB stick, Game Boy cartridge, and so forth. The most common types of files, today, are programs, picture files, music files, and text information. When you insert a new game into your Game Boy, the file system program goes out and looks for a program file to load to start the game. The game is stored on the cartridge as a file.
Understanding Your Computer's File System
In Figure 1, I have provided a snapshot of my file system. My hard drive is named the TheMatrix. The figure shows files and directories on my hard drive. You are looking at how the file system is organized on a Macintosh OS X computer. You are looking at my computer's top-most directory. This is called a root directory.
So what is a directory? A directory is a special file; in a windowed operating system it is called a folder, which stores your files. In my root directory, I have Applications, Developer, game_dev, and Games, directories, to name a few. The Macintosh operating system uses folders to identify directories. A directory can store other directories just as our root directory is storing other directories. A directory inside of another directory is called a subdirectory.
Learning About the File System with Tcl
Go ahead and fire up the Tcl-Tk Wish Shell and let's experiment with
your computer's file system. When Wish Shell executes on a Macintosh
running OS X, your current working directory is the root directory.
But don't take my word for it. Prove it to yourself and type the command
pwd into the Wish Shell console window.
() 1 % pwd / () 2 %
pwd is an UNIX operating system command acronym for print
working directory (
pwd). You'll notice the
pwd command returned a forward
/) and nothing else. This has special meaning for the UNIX file
system. A lonely slash means we are in the root directory.
Let's create a directory called game_dev, just like the one I have in
Figure 2, off of the root directory. We can do this from the Tcl Wish Shell
using the "make directory" command
() 3 % file mkdir /game_dev
The forward slash (/) tells the operating system where to create the game_dev directory. In this case, we are creating the game_dev directory in our root directory.
We can move around the file system using the UNIX operating system command
cd to change directories. Let's experiment and move from our root directory
(/) into the /game_dev subdirectory.
() 4 % cd /game_dev (game_dev) 6 %
You'll notice your prompt now displays the directory name enclosed in
(game_dev). Your current working directory is now set to game_dev.
This would be a good time to download the game_art.gif file using your
web browser. Download the file into your /game_dev directory.
(game_dev) 8 % exec ls game_art.gif
ls is a UNIX file system command to display the contents of a directory.
You can use this command from the Tcl Wish console to see if the art
file is in the correct directory. You can also use the entire file pathname
if you want to experiment with pathnames.
(game_dev) 11 % exec ls /game_dev/game_art.gif /game_dev/game_art.gif
The art file is in the correct directory, so let's move on and display it.
Lesson 2: Displaying the Game Art File
Tcl has some graphics libraries included with Tk that will allow us to open a graphics file and display it. The Tk image photo library has all of the scripting tools we will need for this task. We can load our sprite's art file into our program using the following lines of code:
set filename "/game_dev/game_art.gif" set sprites [image create photo -file $filename]
Remember that the filename variable requires that you give it the correct path to the file you downloaded.
Let's display our art file to see what the contents look like. We will need to determine the height and width of our art file. We can use the image tools to gather these values for us.
set max_x [image width $sprites] set max_y [image height $sprites]
Now that we know the size of the art image, we can proceed and create a Tk canvas to display the art file. The following lines of code accomplish this.
# create the canvas canvas .canv -width $max_x -height $max_y -background black pack .canv -side top -expand yes -fill both
Our next step is to load the image onto the canvas.
# load the image to the canvas .canv itemconfigure $sprites -image $sprites .canv create image 0 0 -image $sprites -anchor nw
The last line of code above tells Tk how to place our image onto the canvas.
We want the image origin to be placed on the canvas origin. Tk is too
smart for its own good, and will attempt to center the image for us.
We need to override Tk and tell the computer to attach the image at
the upper left corner (or northwest:
-anchor nw). You should try experimenting
and remove the
-anchor command to see what happens to the image.
If you're puzzled as to why the image is set in the upper left corner of the canvas, you should read the previous article. I discuss window and canvas geometry there. Figure 2 shows our image loaded using the load_art.tcl script.
set filename "/game_dev/game_art.gif" set sprites [image create photo -file $filename] set max_x [image width $sprites] set max_y [image height $sprites] # create the canvas canvas .canv -width $max_x -height $max_y -background black pack .canv -side top -expand yes -fill both # load the image to the canvas .canv itemconfigure $sprites -image $sprites .canv create image 0 0 -image $sprites -anchor nw
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